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Standard State of all Elements 118

In chemistry, a material's standard state (pure substance, mixture, or solution) serves as a benchmark for estimating its properties under various circumstances. A thermodynamic quantity in the standard state, such as change in enthalpy (H°), change in entropy (S°), or change in Gibbs free energy (G°), is denoted by a superscript circle ° (degree symbol) or a Plimsoll () character. Although the Plimsoll is advised in standards, the degree symbol has gained popularity; see the topic concerning typesetting below.

 

 

Standard State of all Elements

Atomic No

Name

Symbol

Standard State

1

Hydrogen

H

Gas

2

Helium

He

Gas

3

Lithium

Li

Solid

4

Beryllium

Be

Solid

5

Boron

B

Solid

6

Carbon

C

Solid

7

Nitrogen

N

Gas

8

Oxygen

O

Gas

9

Fluorine

F

Gas

10

Neon

Ne

Gas

11

Sodium

Na

Solid

12

Magnesium

Mg

Solid

13

Aluminum

Al

Solid

14

Silicon

Si

Solid

15

Phosphorus

P

Solid

16

Sulfur

S

Solid

17

Chlorine

Cl

Gas

18

Argon

Ar

Gas

19

Potassium

K

Solid

20

Calcium

Ca

Solid

21

Scandium

Sc

Solid

22

Titanium

Ti

Solid

23

Vanadium

V

Solid

24

Chromium

Cr

Solid

25

Manganese

Mn

Solid

26

Iron

Fe

Solid

27

Cobalt

Co

Solid

28

Nickel

Ni

Solid

29

Copper

Cu

Solid

30

Zinc

Zn

Solid

31

Gallium

Ga

Solid

32

Germanium

Ge

Solid

33

Arsenic

As

Solid

34

Selenium

Se

Solid

35

Bromine

Br

Liquid

36

Krypton

Kr

Gas

37

Rubidium

Rb

Solid

38

Strontium

Sr

Solid

39

Yttrium

Y

Solid

40

Zirconium

Zr

Solid

41

Niobium

Nb

Solid

42

Molybdenum

Mo

Solid

43

Technetium

Tc

Solid

44

Ruthenium

Ru

Solid

45

Rhodium

Rh

Solid

46

Palladium

Pd

Solid

47

Silver

Ag

Solid

48

Cadmium

Cd

Solid

49

Indium

In

Solid

50

Tin

Sn

Solid

51

Antimony

Sb

Solid

52

Tellurium

Te

Solid

53

Iodine

I

Solid

54

Xenon

Xe

Gas

55

Cesium

Cs

Solid

56

Barium

Ba

Solid

57

Lanthanum

La

Solid

58

Cerium

Ce

Solid

59

Praseodymium

Pr

Solid

60

Neodymium

Nd

Solid

61

Promethium

Pm

Solid

62

Samarium

Sm

Solid

63

Europium

Eu

Solid

64

Gadolinium

Gd

Solid

65

Terbium

Tb

Solid

66

Dysprosium

Dy

Solid

67

Holmium

Ho

Solid

68

Erbium

Er

Solid

69

Thulium

Tm

Solid

70

Ytterbium

Yb

Solid

71

Lutetium

Lu

Solid

72

Hafnium

Hf

Solid

73

Tantalum

Ta

Solid

74

Tungsten

W

Solid

75

Rhenium

Re

Solid

76

Osmium

Os

Solid

77

Iridium

Ir

Solid

78

Platinum

Pt

Solid

79

Gold

Au

Solid

80

Mercury

Hg

Liquid

81

Thallium

Tl

Solid

82

Lead

Pb

Solid

83

Bismuth

Bi

Solid

84

Polonium

Po

Solid

85

Astatine

At

Solid

86

Radon

Rn

Gas

87

Francium

Fr

Solid

88

Radium

Ra

Solid

89

Actinium

Ac

Solid

90

Thorium

Th

Solid

91

Protactinium

Pa

Solid

92

Uranium

U

Solid

93

Neptunium

Np

Solid

94

Plutonium

Pu

Solid

95

Americium

Am

Solid

96

Curium

Cm

Solid

97

Berkelium

Bk

Solid

98

Californium

Cf

Solid

99

Einsteinium

Es

Solid

100

Fermium

Fm

Solid

101

Mendelevium

Md

Solid

102

Nobelium

No

Solid

103

Lawrencium

Lr

Solid

104

Rutherfordium

Rf

Solid

105

Dubnium

Db

Solid

106

Seaborgium

Sg

Solid

107

Bohrium

Bh

Solid

108

Hassium

Hs

Solid

109

Meitnerium

Mt

Solid

110

Darmstadtium

Ds

Solid

111

Roentgenium

Rg

Solid

112

Copernicium

Cn

Solid

113

Nihonium

Nh

Solid

114

Flerovium

Fl

Solid

115

Moscovium

Mc

Solid

116

Livermorium

Lv

Solid

117

Tennessine

Ts

Solid

118

Oganesson

Og

Gas

 

 

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Standard State of all Elements 118

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