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Acetylene: Structure - Properties - Uses


What is Acetylene?

The simplest alkyne chemical molecule, known as acetylene chemically, is C2H2.


Ethyne, Narcylen, and Vinylene are other names for acetylene. It is frequently employed as a fuel and a component of chemical compounds. It is handled as a solution even though it is unstable in its pure state. The compound's two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond, making it an unsaturated one.


A colorless gas with a faint ether-like odor, vinylene. In water, chloroform, acetone, and benzene, it is readily soluble. In ethanol and carbon disulfide, it is only marginally soluble. When compared to air, it is lighter and more readily ignites. Violent container rupture can result from prolonged exposure to heat or fire.



Acetylene Structure – C2H2

Acetylene: Structure - Properties - Uses


Properties of Acetylene – C2H2








Molecular weight of C2H2



26.038 g/mol



Density of Acetylene



1.097 kg/m3



Boiling point of Acetylene






Melting Point of Acetylene



−80.8 °C




Chemical Properties of Acetylene (C2H2)

1. Reaction with HBr

Ethylidene bromide is the result of the HBr treatment of acetylene.

Ethylidene bromide is the result of the HBr treatment of acetylene.

2. Reaction with sodium metal

Acetylene and sodium combine to form sodium hydroacetylide and hydrogen.

Na + C2H2 NaHC2 + H2


3. Reaction with HCl

Acetylene and HCl combine to generate CH3CHCl2.

Acetylene and HCl combine to generate CH3CHCl2.


Acetylene Uses

1.      Brazing is done with acetylene.

2.     utilized in the glass sector.

3.     used in the production of artificial rubber.

4.     utilized for soldering metals.

5.     used as a food preservation ingredient.

6.     used to make metal precipitate.

7.      used in the production of acetic acid.

8.     used as a raw material in the production of acrylonitrile.

9.     utilized while carburizing steel.

10.  used as an additive in petrol.



Production of Acetylene

The incomplete combustion of CH4 has been used to create this chemical since 1950. (methane). Up till 1983, 4,00,000 tonnes were produced.


It was made in 1862 using a reaction that Friedrich Wohlerthe had discovered. The calcium carbide reaction is described as follows:


CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2


Using an electric arc furnace, the aforementioned reaction occurs at a very high temperature of roughly 2000 °C.



Health Hazards

When exposed to this substance, people may experience headaches, unconsciousness, and dizziness. If there is a larger concentration of ethyne in the air, choking death could happen.



FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions


What is acetylene used for?

In welding and cutting operations, acetylene is used. Acetylene welding is also referred to as cutting coal or oxyfuel. When cutting or welding materials that need temperatures of up to 3,500 ° C (6,330 ° F), this technique is utilized. Of all the gases, acetylene can create the fiercest flame.


How acetylene is produced?

A hydrocarbon passes through an electric arc to produce acetylene, water reacts with calcium carbide to produce acetylene, and methane partially burns with air or oxygen to produce acetylene;



Why is Ethyne called acetylene?

From the French acétylène, the word was created in 1864 by French scientist Marcelin-Pierre-Eugène Berthelot (1823-1907). In 1839, German chemist Justus von Liebig named acetic acid, which was formed from the chemical ending ene + acetyl.


What happens if you inhale acetylene?

Acetylene inhalation symptoms include tachycardia, tachypnea, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and dizziness[2]. A high acetylene exposure level will cause unconsciousness and death. A colorless gas called acetylene is frequently utilized in welding procedures.


Is acetylene corrosive to metal?

In its purest form, acetylene is colorless and fragrant. Although it serves a variety of purposes, acetylene is now recognized for its ability to prevent the top-line corrosion that frequently occurs in gas pipes. A corrosion inhibitor, it can be sprayed because of its high volatility.