Main menu


Sodium bicarbonate: properties – prepare - uses


Sodium bicarbonate: properties – prepare - uses What is sodium bicarbonate?

Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium Bicarbonate is one of the chemical compounds with the molecular formula (NaHCO3 or CHNaO3), and is also known by several other common names including; Baking soda, bicarbonate of soda, monosodium salt of carbonic acid, sodium acid carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, etc., is a white crystalline powder, consisting of the monosodium salt of carbonic acid, odorless and with a bitter alkaline taste, soluble in water To produce sodium and bicarbonate ions, these ions help to increase plasma bicarbonate and reduce hydrogen ion concentration, which increases the pH in the blood. Because of the low hydrogen ion concentration, it makes the solution an alkaline solution capable of reducing acidity, so it is used as an antacid and treat stomach acidity.


Sodium bicarbonate properties

 Sodium bicarbonate has physical and chemical properties that we explain below:

1.      Physical properties of sodium bicarbonate

The physical properties of the material are known as the properties that are apparent and that are not included in the composition of the material and can be distinguished without making any change in the composition and composition of the material. Sodium bicarbonate has the following physical properties:

·       Color: Sodium bicarbonate is present as a white crystalline powder or as white crystalline lumps.

·       Odor: Odorless.

·       Taste: It has a bitter and salty flavour.

·       State of matter: Its state at room temperature is solid, but it has the ability to dissolve in water, and separates from water through the process of evaporation.


2.     Chemical properties of sodium bicarbonate

The chemical properties of a substance are defined as the properties capable of changing the chemical composition of a substance. Sodium bicarbonate has the following chemical properties:

·       Decomposition: When heated to 50°C, sodium bicarbonate decomposes to form carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), and sodium carbonate (NaCO3) in trace amounts.

·       pH: pH can be measured by knowing the concentration of hydrogen ions (H +) in a solution, and this property is known as pH. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, where the value 7 is the neutral or neutral level, and any value less than 7 indicates to acid, and any value above 7 indicates base or alkalinity, and accordingly sodium bicarbonate is alkaline, because the pH of a molar solution containing 1% baking soda in water at room temperature is 8.3 which is greater than 7 and it is alkaline .


How to prepare sodium bicarbonate in the laboratory

Sodium carbonate is prepared mainly using the ammonia-soda process or the Solvay process, and through sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate is prepared, which are described in the following steps:

1.      Necessary tools and components

·       Limestone (calcium carbonate, CaCO3).

·       carbon dioxide (CO2).

·       Ammonia (NH3).

·       Water (H2O).

·       Sodium chloride (NaCl).


2.     Preparation steps

1.      Heating limestone to produce carbon dioxide.

2.     Dissolving carbon dioxide in water to produce carbonic acid (H2CO3).

3.     Separation of carbonic acid to produce hydrogen carbonate ions.

4.     Adding ammonia NH3 to the hydrogen carbonate ions, which leads to the displacement of the reaction between the previous two reactions to produce an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrogen carbonate NH4HCO3.

5.     Add sodium chloride NaCl to aqueous NH4HCO3 ammonium hydrogen carbonate to produce NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate and NHCl ammonium chloride, according to the following equation: CO2 + H2O + NH3 + NaCl NaHCO3 + NHCl.

6.     Heating sodium bicarbonate to decompose and form sodium carbonate, according to the following equation: 2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

7.      Recycling the resulting carbon dioxide to produce NaHCO3.


Sodium bicarbonate uses

Sodium bicarbonate has many useful uses in several areas, which are shown in the following:


1.      Industry

The following are the uses of sodium bicarbonate in industry:

·       Fire extinguishers contain sodium bicarbonate, which helps extinguish fires, through the decomposition of sodium bicarbonate at a high temperature and the production of carbon dioxide, which reduces the oxygen that enhances the fire and then puts it out.

·       Sodium bicarbonate is used efficiently in the treatment of flue gas. The devices that purify the flue gas use sodium bicarbonate, which in turn reacts with acidic and sulfur pollutants and absorbs them.

·       It is used to treat mud contaminated with calcium ions from cement or lime during the drilling industry. Sodium bicarbonate reacts with calcium ions to produce inert calcium deposits that can be removed easily.



The following are the medicinal uses of sodium bicarbonate:

·       The high level of sodium in baking soda helps neutralize acid and treat heartburn.

·       It is used as an alternative to mouthwash and dental cleaning, which is better than using a brush for its ability to reach all areas of the mouth from the corners and crevices of the teeth, tongue and gums.

·       Helps soothe the pain of canker sores.

·       It is used in teeth whitening, through its ability to break the bonds of molecules that form bacteria on the teeth, as it has anti-bacterial and anti-microbial properties.

·       Used as a deodorant, acidic bacteria break down sweat and make it smell bad, and sodium bicarbonate reduces the acidity of the bacteria and reduces odor.

·       It is used to relieve itching caused by insect bites and stings such as bees, and to soothe itching caused by sunburn.

·       Taking sodium bicarbonate supplements reduces the risk of developing chronic kidney disease.

·       It is used in cancer chemotherapy for its ability to kill cancer cells and stop their growth.

·       It helps to get rid of allergies caused by some plants.

·       It is used to treat conditions caused by an overdose of aspirin.

·       It is used to remove pieces of splinters from the skin.



Household uses

Here are the household uses for baking soda:

·       Eliminates unpleasant refrigerator odors through its ability to neutralize odors and freshen refrigerator odors.

·       It is a safe and highly efficient air freshener, as it neutralizes and eliminates unpleasant air odors.

·       It helps in cleaning and bleaching clothes through its ability to remove dirt and stains as an alkaline substance capable of reacting with the acids produced by these dirt.

·       It helps get rid of tough stains on carpets, by mixing it with vinegar and producing carbonic acid, which is one of the main ingredients in cleaning products.

·       They are used as detergents that help clean kitchen and bathroom surfaces.

·       Helps clean fruits and vegetables from pesticides.

·       It is used in the production of bread yeast that ferments bread and in the production of baking powder that is used in cooking.



Sodium bicarbonate is used in many fields, whether in the medical, industrial or domestic fields. It is a white powder, odorless and bitter in taste. It can be dissolved in water and drunk to reduce acidity.