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نصف عمر العناصر Half Life of the elements

نصف عمر العناصر   Half Life of the elements

نصف عمر العناصر
Half Life of the elements

عمر النصف من مادة هو الوقت الذي يستغرقه نصف المادة لتفسد. تم استخدام كلمة "نصف العمر" لأول مرة عند الحديث عن العناصر المشعة حيث يصبح عدد الذرات أصغر بمرور الوقت. يتم استخدامه الآن في العديد من الحالات الأخرى. يمكن استخدام كاشف جيجر مولر لقياس عمر النصف .


Stable
Hydrogen
Stable
Helium
Stable
Lithium
Stable
Beryllium
Stable
Boron
Stable
Carbon
Stable
Nitrogen
Stable
Oxygen
Stable
Fluorine
Stable
Neon
Stable
Sodium
Stable
Magnesium
Stable
Aluminum
Stable
Silicon
Stable
Phosphorus
Stable
Sulfur
Stable
Chlorine
Stable
Argon
Stable
Potassium
Stable
Calcium
Stable
Scandium
Stable
Titanium
Stable
Vanadium
Stable
Chromium
Stable
Manganese
Stable
Iron
Stable
Cobalt
Stable
Nickel
Stable
Copper
Stable
Zinc
Stable
Gallium
Stable
Germanium
Stable
Arsenic
Stable
Selenium
Stable
Bromine
Stable
Krypton
Stable
Rubidium
Stable
Strontium
Stable
Yttrium
Stable
Zirconium
Stable
Niobium
Stable
Molybdenum
211098.4271943 y
Technetium
Stable
Ruthenium
Stable
Rhodium
Stable
Palladium
Stable
Silver
Stable
Cadmium
Stable
Indium
Stable
Tin
Stable
Antimony
Stable
Tellurium
Stable
Iodine
Stable
Xenon
Stable
Cesium
Stable
Barium
Stable
Lanthanum
Stable
Cerium
Stable
Praseodymium
Stable
Neodymium
17.72577371892 y
Promethium
Stable
Samarium
Stable
Europium
Stable
Gadolinium
Stable
Terbium
Stable
Dysprosium
Stable
Holmium
Stable
Erbium
Stable
Thulium
Stable
Ytterbium
Stable
Lutetium
Stable
Hafnium
Stable
Tantalum
Stable
Tungsten
Stable
Rhenium
Stable
Osmium
Stable
Iridium
Stable
Platinum
Stable
Gold
Stable
Mercury
Stable
Thallium
Stable
Lead
1.902587519026×1019 y
Bismuth
102.1055301877 y
Polonium
8.055555555556 h
Astatine
3.82349537037 d
Radon
21.66666666667 m
Francium
1585.489599188 y
Radium
21.78652968037 y
Actinium
1.40601217656×1010 y
Thorium
32787.92491121 y
Protactinium
4.471080669711×109 y
Uranium
2.145484525622×106 y
Neptunium
7.927447995941×107 y
Plutonium
7388.381532217 y
Americium
1.560121765601×107 y
Curium
1379.375951294 y
Berkelium
900.5580923389 y
Californium
1.292174023338 y
Einsteinium
100.4976851852 d
Fermium
51.50462962963 d
Mendelevium
2.777777777778 h
Nobelium
10 h
Lawrencium
13.05555555556 h
Rutherfordium
5.555555555556 h
Dubnium
1.944444444444 h
Seaborgium
1.5 h
Bohrium
1.111111111111 h
Hassium
30 m
Meitnerium
4 m
Darmstadtium
10 m
Roentgenium
40 m
Copernicium
20 m
Nihonium
1.316666666667 m
Flerovium
1 m
Moscovium
120 ms
Livermorium
50 ms
Tennessine
5 ms
Oganesson

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المصادر:

1 International Atomic Energy Agency ENSDF database (2010).
2 Loveland, W.; Morrissey, D.; Seaborg, G.T. (2006). Modern Nuclear Chemistry. Wiley-Interscience. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-471-11532-8.
3 Luig, H.; Kellerer, A. M.; Griebel, J. R. (2011). "Radionuclides, 1. Introduction". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_499.pub2 ISBN 978-3527306732.
4 Martin, James (2006). Physics for Radiation Protection: A Handbook. ISBN 978-3527406111.
5 Petrucci, R.H.; Harwood, W.S.; Herring, F.G. (2002). General Chemistry (8th ed.). Prentice-Hall. p.1025–26.


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